Common Types of Building Foundations and Their Purposes in Construction

20 January 2023

A strong foundation is necessary for every building. It is essential to guarantee a structurally stable piece of engineering, whether a high-rise building or a suburban home. To ensure that the finished result is constructed for stability, you should be aware of the type of building the foundation that your construction site intends to utilise. Civil structures are supported by foundations, which safely transfer load from the building into the earth. Depending on the engineering needs of the building, they are often constructed from reinforced concrete in various styles and depths. The most typical building foundation types and their functions in construction are listed below.

Slab Foundations – Slab foundations, commonly called mat foundations, are classified as shallow building foundations. They are made of thin concrete covering the entire building’s surface. It is perfect for small structures like sheds and dwellings, typically ranging in depth from 10 to 20 centimetres and offers only marginal insulation.

Raised Foundations – Small concrete pillars support raised foundations by raising them from the ground to provide access for fittings or storage. These building foundations create crawl spaces for structures like houses, but they must be adequately ventilated to avoid structural damage from rot or mould.

Wall or Strip Footing – Another shallow building foundation that economically supports modest, heavy loads placed on thick gravel or sand. These wall footings, which are often made of plain or reinforced concrete, stone, or brick, help support walls that are two to three times thicker than the external walls.

Isolated Footing – A building’s foundation, known as an isolated footing, combines wide-base columns with slab bases constructed of plain or reinforced concrete. The building is anchored into the ground through this footing at a distance of around 1.5 metres. When positioned over greater distances, isolated footing performs very well and can support light to medium weights.

Combined Footing – A combined footing is utilised for heavier weights with two or more columns in a row. It can also have a rectangular shape with wide slabs that link together. This building foundation works well for supporting structures that need to be built on soil with low load-bearing capacity while taking up less space overall.

Cantilever Footing – The same idea as combined footing, cantilever footing or strapped footing has a smaller footprint. You can use it in locations where the foundation cannot extend past the property line. Instead of a single solid piece of concrete, it uses slabs that may be placed close together as columns and supports them with a concrete “strap” between them.

Driven Pile Foundations – When the building’s weight exceeds the capacity of the soil beneath it, pile foundations are deep; hefty load-bearing foundations are used. High-rise buildings and other heavy structures with a high load-to-surface-area ratio are where they are most frequently used.

Pier Foundations – Pier foundations are another type of deep foundation made of cylindrical concrete columns that are lowered into excavated ground, similar to raised foundations. They are frequently employed in commercial construction due to their durability and adaptability. They are more sustainable than driven pile foundations, slenderer, and perfect for regions where the soil is too hard for piles.

Cassion Foundations – Large hollowed-out blocks called Casson foundations are frequently built on-site above the ground, sunk into the ground, and then filled with concrete. They can pump water out to keep the construction site dry and offer solid support to structures that need shore protection, such as the coastal construction of bridges, piers, and ship maintenance. These foundations are only appropriate for use on complicated sites because of their size, cost, and integration into the structure.

Here at Pro-Tilt Construction Pty. Ltd., we specialise in construction across various industries, and we can guarantee that all our projects have the most vital foundation it requires. Contact us now at (03) 9359 0088 if you need reliable building services from a reliable contractor.

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